Thus the trinity idea was transferred to Satan on account of the ill-shaped idols of the crude art of Northern civilisation. Dante's description of Dis reminds us not only of the three-headed hoar-giant of the Edda, Hrim-Grimnir, who lives at the door of death, but also of the trinity of various pagan gods, especially of Triglaf, the triune deity of the Slavs. Krause suggests that since Dante, who as an ambassador of Florence visited Rome in , must have seen with his own eyes the head of the Pomeranian Triglaf, it is by no means impossible that he used it as a prototype for the description of his trinitarian Satan.
It is interesting to observe the transformation of the old Teutonic giants who were plain personifications of the crude forces of nature, into Christian devils. Northern mythology represents the giants, be they mountain-giants, storm-giants, frost-giants, fog-giants, or what not,. There are innumerable legends which preserve the old conception and simply replace the names of giants by devils; and we can observe that all the conquests of man over nature are, in the old sense of the Teutonic mythology, described as instances in which giants or devils are outwitted in one way or another.
Tile giants, as representatives of mountains, forests, rivers, lakes, and the soil of the earth, are always bent on collecting the rent that is due to the owner of the land, for men are merely tenants of the earth, which by right belongs to the giants. The giants envy men their comfort and try to destroy their work. Thus the fog-giant Grendel appears at night-time in the hall of King Hrodhgar and devours at each visit thirty men. Beowulf, the sun-hero, fights with him and cuts off his arm; he then encounters Grendel's mother, the giantess of the marsh whence the fog rises, and finally succeeds in killing both Grendel and his mother.
The privilege of collecting rent which the forces of nature, be they gods, demons, or giants, and later on in their stead, the Devil, were supposed to possess, led to the idea of offering sacrifices in payment of the debt due to the powerful and evil-minded landlords, the owners of the soil. And this notion resulted in the superstition of burying alive either human beings or animals, a practice which at a certain stage of civilisation probably was all but universal and received even the sanction of the God of Israel. By this cruel custom people hoped to attain permanence and stability for great buildings.
There are innumerable stories which preserve records of this barbaric custom, and there can be no doubt that many of them are historical and that the practice continued until a comparatively recent time. Scutari is said to have. A ghost appeared while the fortress was in the process of building, and demanded that the wife of one of the three kings who should bring the food to the masons on the next day should be entombed in the foundation.
Being a young mother, she was permitted to nurse her baby, and a hole was left for that purpose which was closed as soon as the child was weaned. We read in F. So long did these superstitions continue after the cruel rite had been abandoned; and they were held, not only in spite of the higher morality which Christianity taught, but even in the name of Christianity. In Tommaseo's Canti Populari an instance is quoted of the voice of an archangel from heaven bidding the builders of a wall entomb the wife of the architect in its foundation.
The practice is here regarded as Christian and it is apparent that there are instances in which Christian authorities were sufficiently ignorant to sanction it, for even the erection of churches was supposed to require the same cruel sacrifice; and there were cases in which, according to the special sanctity of the place, it was deemed. The presence of all the big bowlders that lie scattered in the low lands of Germany is attributed either to giants or to the devils; they are sometimes said to be sand-grains which giants removed from their shoes, or they were thrown down in anger when they found themselves cheated out of their own by the wit of mortals.
He demanded half the crop, and the farmer left him his choice whether he would take the upper or the lower half. When the Devil chose the lower half, the farmer planted wheat, and when the upper half, he planted turnips, leaving him now the stubble and now the useless turnip tops. Whichever way the Devil turned he was outwitted.
Gauss, of Chicago, has kindly translated for the special purpose of quotation in this connection:. There are innumerable other legends of stupid devils. A miller of the Devil-mill in Kleinbautzen tied the Devil to the water-wheel. The tailor, on arriving in hell, maltreated all the devils with his tailor utensils in the attempt at dressing.
Click to view ST. Reproduced from Scheible.
Another comical story is told of Dunstan, abbot of Glaston, later archbishop of Canterbury. While busily. But the saint was not afraid; he took the pincers out of the fire and seized the nose of Satan, who ran off with a howl and never again dared to molest him. The event is commemorated in an old rhyme, thus:.
Dunstan, as the story goes, Once pulled the Devil by the nose With red-hot tongs, which made him roar That he was heard three miles or more.
An act of bravery is told of St. Sir Guy Le Scoope as Thomas Ingoldsby tells us, closely following the chronicle of Bolton expected company, but finding at the appointed hour the banquet hall empty, because the guests had been kept away through a bad joke of the inviting messenger, he called on the Devil and ten thousand fiends to eat the dinner and take all that was there with them to the infernal regions. The Devil came with his devilish company and all the folk of Sir Guy fled, leaving the little heir behind, who was at once seized by Black Jim, the leader of the fiendish company.
In his anxiety Sir Guy cried to St.
Cuthbert of Bolton, who actually made his appearance in the shape of ail old palmer and forced the demoniac crowd to surrender the child, but he generously allowed them to remain as the guests of Sir Guy, adding:. Nor wrench of the knocker--or bell from the gate. Walk away, like respectable Devils, in peace, And don't "lark" with the watch or annoy the police!
Lolina: Origins by R L Hughes. I was just about to drop the whole At first, I found the story extremely scrappy and silly. Ragnarok, the prophesized fall of the gods, is at hand. The other blood drinkers around her looked on in horror. About Myung-Jin Lee. Write a Review. The rapidity of them adapting to spaceship technology and developing a new tactic against an ancient spacefaring empire is very unlikely; ridiculous, even.
Ingoldsby Legends. From the Ingoldsby Legends. Then fell tooth and claw on the victuals, as they Had been guests at Guildhall upon Lord Mayor's day, All scrambling and scuffling for what was before 'em, No care for precedence or common decorum. Still another story of saintly courage is told of St. Medard, who while once promenading on the shore of.
The saint took compassion on the poor souls and slit Satan's bag open, whereupon Old Nick's prisoners escaped. A new bridge has been built by engineers of the nineteenth century right above the old one; but the old one remained for a long time in its place, until it broke down in recent years.
The legend goes that a shepherd-lad engaged the Devil to build the bridge on the condition that the soul of the first living creature that crossed it should be forfeited. When the work was finished the lad drove a chamois over the bridge, which, seeing that he was cheated out of the price he had expected, the Devil wrathfully tore into pieces. All these stories are Christianised pagan notions of evil conquered either through cleverness and wit or by divine assistance; and even the church doctrines of sin.
The Christian scheme of salvation may be briefly called the vicarious atonement of man's sin through the blood of Christ. God's wrath upon the guilty human race is purified through the sufferings and death of the innocent god-man. Divine Justice is satisfied by the sacrifice of Divine Love. The mystery of this doctrine and also of the doctrine of original sin, which in its literal sense can hardly be regarded as commendable, has a deep sense which appears when we consider the organic unity of the human race.
We not only inherit the evil consequences of our ancestors' evil deeds, but we actually consist of their evil dispositions themselves. Thus the sin of our fathers is our curse because it is our own, and, in the same way, the merit of our brothers becomes, or may become, our own blessing.
We can easily share in the benefit that will accrue from inventions or other advances made by one man if we are only willing to accept the lesson which his example teaches. He published several sample studies in Danske Studier , the journal he co-founded with Marius Kristensen in , and in —, with Ida Falbe-Hansen , he published a collection of reconstructed texts, Danske Folkeviser i Udvalg ; in —, an edition with melodic arrangements by Thomas Laub was published. These were very popular and were translated into German and English.
Lange founded the Danish folklore archive Dansk Folkemindesamling ,  and served as its first president. He was also the first president of Danmarks Folkeminder, an association founded in , and set up its committees for the study of folklore material and of placenames, both of which are now research institutes at the University of Copenhagen. In addition, with Kaarle Krohn and C.
Based on the presence or absence of West Norse names and familiarity with West Norse geography and with material in pre-existing Icelandic historical works, he believed it was possible to distinguish passages in which Saxo had drawn on Norwegian and Icelandic sources and those where he had used native Danish traditions. Olrik eventually developed a system for the study of oral narrative which he called sagn - 'saga' , including principles for the study of sources developed with Kristian Erslev , a theory of transmission and most influentially, a theory of form which he called " epic laws ".
In Olrik was named the first external member of the Finnish Academy of Sciences. Media related to Axel Olrik at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Categories : births deaths People from Frederiksberg Danish male writers Danish folklorists Writers on Germanic paganism Deaths from pneumonia.